EPD - Beach Water Quality

 

Beach Water Quality in Hong Kong 2013

Our Mission:

To safeguard the health and welfare of the community and meet conservation goals by working to achieve and maintain the Water Quality Objective for bathing beaches

[Photo: Beaches in Hong Kong are popular spots for a wide range of outdoor activities]

Introduction

Hong Kong has many beautiful and attractive beaches with white sands along its long and twisting coastline. Each year, millions of beach-goers enjoy bathing in these beaches with clean water.

The objective of the Environmental Protection Department (EPD)'s Beach Water Quality Monitoring Programme is to monitor beach water quality and protect the health of bathers. The background and details of the EPD's monitoring activities can be found at its Hong Kong Water Quality Resource Centre (HKWQRC) website (http://wqrc.epd.gov.hk) or its beach water quality thematic website (http://www.beachwq.gov.hk).

[Photo: Kids playing together at Butterfly Beach]

This report summarises the beach monitoring data collected in 2013, the gradings of the beaches and their annual compliance with the Water Quality Objective (WQO) for bathing beaches. In 2013, the EPD monitored 41 gazetted beaches and three non-gazetted beaches in different parts of the territory. The gazetted beaches were monitored weekly during the bathing season from March to October. EPD staff made field observations and collected samples for laboratory analyses of Escherichia coli (E. coli) as the bacteriological water quality indicator. EPD staff also took measurements of dissolved oxygen, pH, salinity, temperature and turbidity of beach water.

[Photo: EPD staff monitoring beach water quality]

[Photo: Bacterial testing of beach water at EPD's laboratory]

Hong Kong's beaches are assessed using a dual system: annual ranking and weekly grading which are both based on the E. coli level in beach water to indicate potential health risks associated with swimming. The annual ranking reflects the overall water quality of the beach over the entire bathing season, while the weekly grading denotes the recent water quality of the beach. Under the dual rating system, beaches are categorised into "Good", "Fair", "Poor" and "Very Poor". Those ranked "Good" and "Fair" meet the WQO for bathing waters.

[Photo: Beach water quality grading board]

Annual Beach Ranking in 2013

All 41 gazetted beaches in Hong Kong complied with the WQO in 2013. Although the total rainfall recorded during the bathing season in 2013 (2671 mm) was 54% higher than that in 2012 (1733 mm), there were only occasional increases in the E. coli levels in beach water, which were recorded mostly for beaches in the western side of Hong Kong. Compared with the ranking in 2012, the number of beaches ranked as "Good" has increased from 23 (or 56 %) to 24 (or 59 %) and the number of beaches ranked as "Fair" has changed from 18 (or 44%) to 17 (or 41%). No beach was ranked as "Poor" or "Very Poor" in 2013.

[Photo: Scenic Clear Water Second Bay Beach]

The beaches with a "Good" water quality ranking were largely located in the Southern District (Hong Kong Island South), Outlying Islands and Sai Kung. All 12 beaches in the Southern District were ranked as "Good" in 2013. Of the nine beaches on the Outlying Islands, seven were "Good" while Silver Mine Bay Beach and Pui O Beach were rated as "Fair". The ranking of Pui O Beach has changed to "Fair" but the change was not statistically significant. In the Sai Kung area, five beaches were "Good" in 2013 with Silverstrand Beach rated as "Fair". On the western side, all six beaches along the Tuen Mun coast and all eight beaches in the Tsuen Wan District received a "Fair" ranking in 2013.

The water quality of the Tsuen Wan beaches has been stable in 2013 following improvement in previous years, which is mainly due to the smooth operation of the Advance Disinfection Facilities (ADF) of the Stonecutters Island Sewage Treatment Works since March 2010, and the completion of the sewerage works in the hinderland of the beaches.

Since all the Tsuen Wan beaches have achieved the WQO for bathing, four previously closed beaches, namely Approach Beach, Casam Beach, Hoi Mei Wan Beach and Lido Beach, have been reopened to the public for swimming since June 2011. After the upgrading of beach facilities, Anglers' Beach has also been reopened for swimming since September 2013. For the remaining Ting Kau Beach and Gemini Beaches, the Leisure and Cultural Services Department plans to reopen them for public use after the completion of the improvement works in the swimming season of 2014.

[Photo: Stanley Main Beach - bathers enjoying the clean sand]

EPD also monitored three non-gazetted beaches in Hong Kong: Discovery Bay (a popular beach on Lantau Island), a sandy beach adjacent to Kiu Tsui Beach in Sai Kung, and a planned artificial beach in Lung Mei, Tai Po. Discovery Bay and the beach adjacent to Kiu Tsui Beach continued to be ranked as "Good" in 2013. Similar to 2012, Lung Mei was ranked as "Poor" in 2013. The public sewerage network is being extended to villages in the Lung Mei area, and other pollution abatement measures will be implemented to improve the water quality.

Weekly Beach Grading in 2013

The EPD issues weekly gradings of gazetted beaches which are open for swimming. The information is disseminated to the public through weekly press release, the EPD's websites, the beach enquiry hotline, GeoInfo Map of the GovHK website and beach noticeboards.

In 2013, the water quality of beaches in the Southern District was largely satisfactory. Ten gazetted beaches received mostly "Good" or "Fair" grading in the bathing season, while St. Stephen's Beach and Stanley Main Beach were rated as "Very Poor" on a few occasions after heavy rain. South Bay Beach had the best water quality, achieving "Good" gradings on all rating occasions.

[Photo: Hong Kong beaches offer respite from hustle and bustle of city life]

The water quality of the Sai Kung beaches was also generally good with weekly grading mostly "Good" or "Fair". Kiu Tsui Beach was rated as "Very Poor" on two occasions after heavy rain.

The beaches on the Outlying Islands were generally very suitable for swimming, with Hung Shing Yeh and Upper Cheung Sha Beaches achieving 100% "Good" gradings. Cheung Chau Tung Wan, Kwun Yam, Lo So Shing and Tong Fuk Beaches achieved "Good" gradings over 80% of the rating occasions. Cheung Chau Tung Wan, Kwun Yam, Lo So Shing and Pui O Beaches were rated once as "Very Poor" after heavy rain.

The water quality of the beaches in the Tuen Mun area was generally fine and nearly all graded as "Good" or "Fair".

The water quality of beaches in Tsuen Wan was generally satisfactory with gradings maintained mostly at either "Good" or "Fair". Except Approach Beach, other open beaches were rated as "Very Poor" on one or a few occasions after heavy rain.

[Photo: Scenic Lo So Shing Beach (Lamma Island)]

Water Quality Trend

The beach water quality in Hong Kong is able to fully comply with the WQO for the last four years. The percentage of beaches complying with the WQO had changed from 74% in 1986 (29 of 39 beaches) to 63% (26 of 41 beaches) in 1997, and then improved to 100% since 2010 for all 41 gazetted beaches.

Comparison of annual beach ranking of gazetted beaches in 1986, 1997 and 2013

Year

WQO Compliant

WQO Non-compliant

Good

Fair

Poor

Very Poor

1986

23.1%(9)

51.3%(20)

17.9%(7)

7.7%(3)

1997

24.4% (10)

39.0% (16)

29.3% (12)

7.3% (3)

2013

58.5%(24)

41.5%(17)

-

-

( ) No. of beaches

Note: Two Beaches degazetted in 1995 were excluded from the calculation.

Back in the 1980s, many beaches were either closed, such as Cafeteria Old Beach, Castle Peak Beach and Silver Mine Bay Beach, or on the verge of being closed (e.g. Middle Bay Beach and Repulse Bay Beach) because of poor water quality.

There was a further drop in compliance rate in the mid-1990s due to population growth particularly in the new town areas. Since then, there has been progressive improvement in the last decade as a result of enforcement of environmental legislation, extension of the sewerage network and provision of new sewage treatment facilities across the territory including the beach hinterland. Major improvement measures implemented in the past are summarized in the following table.


Major improvement measures for the beaches since the implementation of beach water quality monitoring programme in 1986

1986 – 1990

Implementation of the Livestock Waste Control Scheme under the Waste Disposal (Livestock Waste) Regulation.

Declaration of the Southern Water Control Zone (WCZ) under the Water Pollution Control Ordinance (WPCO) and legislative enforcement.

Interception and diversion of polluted storm drains at beaches in Southern District.

Most beaches, particularly Silver Mine Bay Beach

Southern beaches


Southern beaches

1991- 1995

Implementation of chemical waste control.

Declaration of the North Western WCZ under WPCO and legislative enforcement.
Diversion of polluted storm water drains away from Castle Peak Beach.
Provision of public sewers for So Kwun Wat and Sam Shing Estate.


Commissioning of Stanley Sewage Treatment Works (STW).

All beaches

Tuen Mun beaches



Stanley Main Beach

1996 - 2000

Full implementation of WPCO in all WCZs.

Commissioning of the Shek O Sewage Screening Plant and diversion of polluted storm water drains at Shek O Village.

Completion of all major works under Southern Southern Sewerage Master Plan.

Commissioning of the new 2 km long Pillar Point sewage submarine outfall.

All beaches

Shek O Beach


Southern beaches

Tuen Mun beaches

2001 - 2005

Completion of HATS Stage 1.


Provision of public sewers in the Silverstrand area.

Full operation of the Sham Tseng STW.

Big Wave Bay, Shek O, Rocky Bay Beaches

Silverstrand Beach

Beaches along the Tsuen Wan coast

2006 - 2013

Commissioning of the Advance Disinfection Facilities at Stonecutters Island STW.

Extension of the public sewerage network to the beach hinterland along Castle Peak Road.

All Tsuen Wan beaches

Beaches along the Tsuen Wan coast

Through continuous efforts of the government to implement pollution abatement measures over the years, there was significant improvement at the beaches in various districts in the last few years. Improvement at Silver Mine Bay Beach, Castle Peak Beach and Repulse Bay Beach was most remarkable as the beaches have consistently complied with the WQO in recent years. All beaches in Tsuen Wan have met the WQO since 2010. To sum up, all of Hong Kong's bathing beaches have now achieved the required standard for swimming.

Compliance with WQO at gazetted beaches, 1997 - 2013

[Figure: Compliance with WQO at gazetted beaches, 1997 - 2013]

Water quality trend lines of gazetted beaches over the last 28 years are included in this report to show the changes over the years. More in-depth background and details of the beach monitoring programme are available at the EPD's Hong Kong Water Quality Resource Centre (HKWQRC) website (http://wqrc.epd.gov.hk) or its beach water quality thematic website (http://www.beachwq.gov.hk), which provides user-friendly access to the annual beach reports as well as data published since 2000.

[Photos: Fun for all ages at Castle Peak Beach]

The Monitoring Programme

Beaches monitored by the EPD

Southern
District

Sai Kung
District

Tsuen Wan
District

Tuen Mun
District

Islands District

Tai Po
District

Deep Water Bay
Repulse Bay
Middle Bay
South Bay
Chung Hom Kok
St. Stephen's
Stanley Main
Turtle Cove
Shek O
Big Wave Bay
Hairpin
Rocky Bay

Kiu Tsui
Hap Mun Bay
Trio
Silverstrand
Clear Water Bay First
Clear Water Bay Second
Kiu Tsui (New)**

Ma Wan Tung Wan
Anglers'
Gemini
Hoi Mei Wan
Casam
Lido
Ting Kau
Approach

Butterfly
Castle Peak
Kadoorie
Cafeteria Old
Cafeteria New
Golden

Silver Mine Bay
Pui O
Lower Cheung Sha
Upper Cheung Sha
Tong Fuk
Cheung Chau Tung Wan
Kwun Yam
Hung Shing Yeh
Lo So Shing
Discovery Bay**

Lung Mei**

 

** Non-gazetted beaches

 

Beach monitoring frequencies

Beach

Monitoring frequency per month

Bathing season *

Non-bathing season

Gazetted beaches open all year round**

at least 3 times

at least 3 times

Other gazetted beaches

at least 3 times

once

Non-gazetted beaches

at least 3 times

once

*  March to October

** Clear Water Bay Second, Deep Water Bay, Golden and Silverstrand Beaches

 

Overview of Various Stages of the Beach Monitoring Programme

[Image of overview of various stages of the Beach Monitoring Programme]

 

Hong Kong's annual beach ranking system

Rank

E. coli counts per 100 mL*

Minor illness rate**
(Cases per 1,000 swimmers)

WQO Compliance

Good

<=24

Undetectable

Compliant

Fair

25-180

<=10

Poor

181-610

11-15

Non-compliant

Very Poor

>610

>15

* Geometric mean E. coli count calculated based on all data collected between March and October.

** Skin and gastrointestinal illnesses

Hong Kong's weekly beach grading system

Grade

Beach water quality

E. coli counts per 100 mL*

Minor illness rate **
(Cases per 1,000 swimmers)

1

Good

<=24

Undetectable

2

Fair

25-180

<=10

3

Poor

181-610

11-15

4

Very Poor

>610
or last reading >1,600

>15

* Unless otherwise indicated, the E. coli count represents the geometric mean of the 5 most recent sampling occasions.

** Skin and gastrointestinal illnesses

The 2013 Findings

Hong Kong's gazetted beaches 2013 annual ranking

Weekly beach grading summary of gazetted beaches by district in 2013

[Image of Annual Ranking of gazetted beaches at a glance]

Southern District beaches

Sai Kung beaches

Tsuen Wan beaches

Tuen Mun beaches

Outlying Islands beaches

Water Quality Trend

Annual beach rankings of gazetted beaches from 1986 to 2013

Comparsion of annual beach ranking of gazetted beaches in 1986 and 2013

Annual geometric mean E. coil levels of gazetted beaches by district, 1997-2013

Appendices

Appendix A - Annual geometric mean E. coli levels (1997 – 2013)

Appendix B - 2013 Beach visitor number

Appendix C - Physicochemical water quality data for gazetted beaches, 2013

Appendix D – Images of Long-term trend of beach water quality (1986 – 2013)

 

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